Guidance Material for "Contemporary Teaching Methodologies in an Intercultural Classroom"
This guidance material was developed by Karolinska Institutet in January 2020 and shared with all CLILMED partners during a 3-day workshop so that the project participants develop a common and shared understanding of the teaching methodologies available for their intercultural and international classroom.
The aim of this Guidance Material is to provide persons using it with research-based evidence of best practices in international education, based on the available scholarship of teaching and learning. The Guidance Material is a quality teacher training for international medical education and allowing the integration of these elements of international / intercultural education within their teaching practices through Content and Learning Integrated Learning (CLIL).
The Intended Lessons Learned
As a result of the activity, the participants are expected to:
- Define the concept of internationalisation of education at university and its impact on teaching and learning, reflecting upon their own specific context;
- Explain the pedagogical implications of teaching and learning in the local language and in English at the university and consider the consequences of these choices in their own teaching practices;
- Use a Content and Language Integrated Learning approach so that students are able to develop content knowledge/skills alongside the language skills required of the academic discipline;
- Revise own course materials and teaching practices in order to use their students as partners from an intercultural perspective;
- Integrate global and international perspectives in their teaching practice in order to encourage global engagement and international disciplinary learning;
- Identify appropriate tools and strategies for the management of heterogeneous group work;
- Apply constructive alignment of international learning outcomes, teaching and learning activities and assessment and feedback to own teaching context.
To present it as a guidance material from the workshop, the content has been divided into smaller parts (slide sets to which links are provided in each section), accompanied by short explanatory notes:
Slide Set #1. The level of internationalisation
Through this set of slides the participants are introduced to the definition of Internationalisation fo Higher Education (de Wit et al. 2015) and are invited to reflect on the level of internationalisation of their own institutions according to this definition. See Slide Set #1
Slide Set #2. Diversity, culture and students
In order to equip the students with the necessary skills to live and work ethically and responsibly in a globalised world, they must learn to become culturally agile global citizens. Academic teachers participating in the workshop are invited to reflect on the shape and structure of their classrooms and on the opportunities which exist (or not) in these classrooms to harness the present diversity to enhance the quality of learning. See Slide Set #2.
Slide Set #3. What does internationalisation mean for students?
Students not only understand the potential of an internationalised curriculum, they actually expect to develop the knowledge, skills and attitude during the course of their studies. Participants are invited to watch a video produced by University College London whereby students discuss the worldview that they are acculturated to during their studies there. The CLILMED project also becomes an opportunity for teachers to reflect on whose ideas they present as valid and how to harness the different ways of seeing, doing and thinking present in their classrooms. See Slide Set #3.
Slide Set #4. Conceptual frameworks
This section introduces participants to useful conceptual frameworks for international education. It allows us to link local, national and global agendas and provides us with a guidance for quality education. This section also introduces Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL), Internationalisation of the Curriculum (IoC) and the use of constructive alignment as research-based evidence best practices. See Slide Set #4.
Slide Set #5. What results from an internationalised curriculum?
This section details what outcomes can be expected of an internationalised curriculum and present a framework for devising Internationalised Intended Learning Outcomes (IILOs). It also offers a template for teachers to follow when they perform the internationalisation of the curriculum at the course level. See Slide Set #5.
Slide Set #6. Assessment and feedback across cultures
This section looks at cultural diversity in the student population as the norm rather than the exception in European universities. Culture is not only defined by nationality or ethnicity. It is a broad concept that encompasses the lifestyle, traditions, knowledge, skills, beliefs, norms and values shared by a group of people and its meaning is continuously constructed through human interaction and communication within and across cultural groups. The cultural diversity in the student population has a significant impact on teaching and learning. Rubrics can be used to assess and develop student intercultural competence (see examples from Bennet and from the Association of American Colleges and Universities (AACU). See Slide Set #6.
Slide Set #7. Evaluating Quality of Education
Firstly, the slides describe the course evaluation procedure at Karolinska Institutet to monitor the quality of education perceived by KI students. This procedure is standardised, it is sent out to students after each course completion. It contains questions on five fields used as indicators of student-perceived quality at KI: 1) relevance, 2) learning objectives achievement, 3) constructive alignment, 4) scientific approach and link to research and 5) student influence. Secondly, the slides illustrate the importance of the validity concept, being a judgment of how well a test or procedure measures what it intends to measure so that any inferences drawn from the results can be considered accurate. Thirdly, the slides discuss why it is important to evaluate all attempted actions so that we have evidence that it works or how effective it is as well as what are the different steps of the evaluation process. Finally, the slides offer questions for a discussion and an exchange of ideas and suggestions regarding evaluating quality in education and evaluating interventions meant to help students become sustainable citizens. See Slide Set #7.
Slide Set #8. The right to health
This section starts with two links to two videos by the Gapminder Team (Hans Rosling, Ola Rosling and Anna Rönnlund Rosling) in order to incorporate other modes of learning and showing best practice of sources that are already available to show other users where to find material to use in own classrooms. The rest of the section provides a basic introduction to the human right to health, to unpack the meaning of it and practical aspects of implementing it. It includes a brief historical overview, an explanation of the AAAQ (availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality) framework, key aspects of the right to health as well as core content of the right to health. It can be used to further ground the need for intercultural competencies in health (specifically related to the aspects of accessibility and acceptability) as well as anchoring the global health perspective in human rights, which are globally applicable. The human right to health is an intrinsic part to health everywhere as it provides a legal foundation for the health system, regardless of country, and practical aspects that are key to implementing it. See Slide Set #8.
Slide Set #9. Global engagement & International disciplinary learning
The field of international education is most often described as education that transcends borders through the mobility or exchange of people, for example students studying abroad. However, the field is far more expansive. It includes a comprehensive approach to education that prepares students to be active and engaged participants in an interconnected world, where they think global and act local. It is also an opportunity for teachers to question the paradigms on which their disciplines rest: whose knowledge is presented as valid and how is the curriculum determined and what makes it relevant? See Slide Set #9.
Slide Set #10. Integrating internationalisation across the university
KI is about to implement a new strategy (Strategy 2030) where the internationalisation of the university is central. This set of slides demonstrates, based on the KI example, that to succeed, it is important that internationalisation also encompasses support services and university administration. Systematic University Change Towards Internationalization (SUCTI) consortium has developed tools and workshops to successfully integrate internationalisation into the university administration and KI has used their training modules across the university on internationalisation basics. KI plans to implement such workshops for more groups in the administration while HR aims to integrate internationalisation into the introduction for all new staff. Also students are introduced to internationalisation as they are admitted and through specially tailored social media campaigns. Students are also purposely prepared for international exchange studies through an online “PREPARE” course based on the three pillars of Safety and Health, Global Health, and Intercultural Competence. The course is mandatory for all outbound exchange students. See Slide Set #10.